Degree in Health Engineering La Salle Campus Barcelona

Degree in Health Engineering

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Electromagnetic Compatibility

The course addresses the problem of the interferences, so present in our current environment, and the need to design electronic equipment considering not only its functionality, but also its capacity to interfere and to exhibit a certain level of immunity against the interferences from other electronic equipment: to make compatible the functioning of some equipments next to others in specific environments. The course discusses interferences, both natural and artificial, the paths and ways of coupling, and the design techniques to improve the electromagnetic compatibility of electric and electronic equipment. The measurement environments and the instrumentation needed to perform tests are also explained, as well as the pertinent measurement procedures to evaluate the compliance of the EMC directives. We also study the legislation, regulations and organizations involved in the conformity procedures necessary to obtain the `CE´ label. Finally, the course also has a practice which consists in the study of real practical cases.
Type Subject

Titular Professors

Academic Director
Previous Knowledge

Notions of electronics, instrumentation and transmission systems


The students of the Electromagnetic Compatibility course acquire the knowledge and develop the skills listed below:

1. They understand the problem posed by the electromagnetic compatibility from the point of view of electric and electronic equipment design, and from the legislation and organizations which regulate it.
2. They command the basic concepts and magnitudes related with the course.
3. They can identify the origin and nature of all the possible interference sources and coupling paths.
4. They acquire the capacity to apply the techniques described in the course to solve both emission and immunity problems.
5. They are able to perform laboratory tests and measurements in order to verify the conformity of devices to the pertinent regulations.
6. They can analyze practical situations and decide among the several improvement alternatives.
7. They have a pragmatic business approach to problems.


1. The EMC problem
1.1- Introduction. Definitions, history, organizations and examples.
1.2- Sources, coupling paths and receivers.
1.3- Radiated and conducted interferences.

2. Interference sources
2.1- Natural sources.
2.2- Atmospheric and electrostatic discharges.
2.3- Artificial sources.
2.4- Passive components.
2.5- Resistances, capacitors, inductors.
2.6- Connection terminals, conductors, transformers.
2.7- Ferrites.
2.8- Other sources.

3. Ways of coupling
3.1- Coupling by conduction.
3.2- Common impedances and ground loops.
3.3- Coupling by radiation.
3.4- Near field radiation.
3.5- Far field radiation.
3.6- Common and differential modes.

4. Cables
4.1- Types of cables.
4.2- Cable shielding.
4.3- Cable parameter measurement.

5. Shielding
5.1- Effectiveness and functional principal.
5.2- Absorption losses.
5.3- Reflection losses.
5.4- Material behavior.
5.5- Connection and placement of the shielding.
5.6- Discontinuities in the shielding.

6. Earth, ground and bias
6.1- Earth and ground.
6.2- Connection to ground by high and low frequency.
6.3- Ground line inductance.
6.4- Connection to ground of cables and subsystems.
6.5- The bias line.
6.6- Distribution of the bias line.
6.7- The coupling capacitor.

7. Filtering
7.1- Insertion losses.
7.2- Impedance matching.
7.3- Filters for power lines.
7.4- Filters for data and control lines.

8. Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
8.1- Origin and effects.
8.2- Generation mechanisms.
8.3- Circuit models.
8.4- Coupling mechanisms.
8.5- Protection and design strategies.

9. Measurement instruments for EMC
9.1- Equipment for emissions.
9.2- Equipment for immunity.

10. Measurement environments
10.1- Conducted measurements
10.2- Radiated measurements
10.3- Measurement environment evaluation
10.4- Alternatives to semi-anechoic chambers

11. Electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS)
11.1- Susceptibility in analogical devices.
11.2- Susceptibility in digital devices.
11.3- Suppressing devices.
11.4- Primary protections.
11.5- Protection circuits.

12. Regulations and legislation for Electromagnetic Compatibility.
12.1- Involved organizations.
12.2- The directives.
12.3- Procedures for the evaluation of conformity.
12.4- The `CE´ label.
12.5- Regulations for EMC.

13. Practical cases
13.1- Case presentation.
13.2- Analysis of the problems.
13.3- Proposal of solutions.


During the course several methodologies are combined to teach the subject.

1. Magisterial classes.
The professor imparts the subject and tries that it be as participative as possible through questions and debates. Slides are often used to present the topics since blackboard explanations would be lengthy and somewhat confusing due to the profusion of drawings and plots. The students can get online the slides in advance. This way, time is saved and can be devoted to explain and comment with greater detainment on the concepts.

2. Problem resolution workshops.
Problems are set forth and solved by the professor. The problems are designed to clarify the theoretical concepts applying them to practical situations.

3. Real cases workshops.
Real devices with emission or immunity problems are discussed. The students identify the problems and suggest different alternatives to solve them. Both the possible effectiveness of the solutions and their technical and economical viability are discussed.

As a teaching support tool we use an online virtual campus. It allows the interaction with students using tools that allow the exchange of files, send e-mail and notices, and make forums and consultations.


1. Exams
The subject lasts one semester. At the end of it there is an individual and written exam. The exams consist of a problem part and a theory part, with a variable weight in the exam score. There is no established percentage for each part. Both exams are scored over 10.
In July there is a second opportunity with another similar exam.

F. Reports / group works
About suggested themes, each group prepares their work that will be defended orally in front of the class.

I. Presentations
Presentations are prepared about the suggested works. They are discussed and defended orally in class.

J. Classroom participation
Classroom participation and attendance are evaluated for the quality and quantity of each student´s interventions during regular classes and during the presentation of the practical cases and discussions about the possible solutions to the problems.
The final exam grade is averaged with the exercises form the continuous evaluation, works and participation in class. If the grade is equal to or higher than 5 the subject is passed, if not there is a recovery exam in July.

Evaluation Criteria

Objective 1:
- The student must have a general vision and understand the problems that electromagnetic compatibility poses from the point of view of electric and electronic equipment design and from the view of measurement procedures and legislation and organizations that regulate it. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 2:
- The student has to master the basic concepts and magnitudes related with the subject. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 3:
- The student must be able to identify the origin and nature of all the possible interference sources and coupling paths. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 4:
- The student must have the capacity to apply the techniques described in the course to solve both emission and immunity problems. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 5:
- The student has to show his capacity to perform laboratory tests and measurements in order to verify the conformity of devices to the pertinent regulations. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 6:
- The student has to demonstrate his capacity to analyze practical situations and decide among the several improvement alternatives. [A+F+I+J]

Objective 7:
- The student must reach a pragmatic business approach to problems. [A+F+I+J]

Basic Bibliography

David Badia Folguera, transparències i apunts de Compatibilitat Electromagnètica.2018 Publicacions Enginyeria i Arquitectura La Salle.

Additional Material

Lopez Veraguas, Joan Pere
Compatibilidad electromagnética y seguridad funcional en sistemas electrónicos (2013), Coedición Editorial Marcombo, S.A. / Alfaomega Grupo Editor SA.

H.W. Ott
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering (2009)
Editorial: Wiley

Tim Williams
EMC for Product Designers, Fourth Edition, Newnes, UK 2007

Howard Johnson, Martin Graham
High-Speed Digital Desing. A Handbook of Black Magic.
Prentice Hall, 1993. 27th Printing, 2011

Howard Johnson, Martin Graham
High-Speed Signal Propagation. Advanced Black Magic.
Prentice Hall, 2003. 11th Printing, 2011

Mark I. Montrose
Printed Circuit Board Design Techniques for EMC Compliance;
IEEE Press Original Handbook;

Mark I. Montrose, Edward M. Nakauchi
Testing for EMC Compliance
IEEE Press 2004

Anatoly Tsaliovich
Electromagnetic Shielding Handbook for wired and wireless EMC applications
Kluwer Academic Publishers. Norwell, Massachusetts

R. Pallas, F. Daura, J. Balcells, E. Esparza.
Interferencias electromagéticas en sistemas electrónicos, 1a ed. Marcombo, Barcelona